3D Printing First Layer Problems: Why is the Bottom of My 3D Print Rough?

In the 3D printing process, the FDM printer deposits material on the print bed to build a model layer by layer. The first layer is very important for 3D printing and is what we often focus on. The first layer lays the foundation of the 3D printed model and is critical to the success of the print. If there is a problem with the printing of first layer, the model may not attach properly to the print bed, displacement may occur, or the bottom of 3D print not smooth. For 3D printing first layer rough, we provide some effective solutions below.


What Causes Rough First Layer of 3D Print?

We focus on the print quality of the first layer, first making sure that the first layer is properly attached to the print bed. If the first few layers appear to shift, it is obvious that subsequent prints cannot be completed, and the printer needs to be adjusted or sliced to be reprinted. If there is warping during printing, or the density is too low, the bottom of the model is not flat or smooth, it will affect the quality of the model. For the problem of rough printing on the first layer, it will also be affected by many factors: the leveling or adhesion of printing bed, the printing temperature setting, whether the printing speed is too fast, etc.


Z offset: The first layer of printing is rough, and one of the most direct reasons may be that the nozzle height is not appropriate. Nozzle height refers to the distance between the nozzle and the print bed. As shown in the image above, if the nozzle is too close, filament cannot be extruded smoothly, it will directly cause a rough surface to be printed. If the nozzle is too high and far from the print bed, there will be gaps between lines on the first layer of printing, or it will not adhere to the print bed and produce a layer shift.

Layer Height: When your printer is running normally but you find that the first layer on the hotbed is very rough, there is another common reason: the layer height. The layer height means the resolution of the print, which can directly affect the print quality. This is something you can set when slicing your model. Try to adjust the layer height to a smaller value, the resolution of the print will increase, and the surface of the first layer will also be significantly improved.

Printing Speed: 3D printers generally have an average printing speed and a fastest achievable printing speed. However, the printing speed is too fast, and the printer in not so stable, which may cause some problems in the printing process, and rough printing is one of them. Too fast printing speed can easily lead to too fast material extrusion, uneven deposition on the hot bed, and poor quality of the first layer.


How to Improve 3D Print: Solutions to Fix Rough First Layer

There are many factors that can affect the quality of 3D printing first layer, and the roughness of the first layer will directly lead to a decrease in the quality of the print. So how should we solve the problem and improve the success rate of printing? In fact, it is very simple. Many people will encounter common first-layer problems during the printing process. After mastering a few adjustment methods, you can easily deal with the problems and improve the printing quality.

Method 1: Clean Print Bed and Nozzle

A rough, debris-covered print bed can make it difficult to produce perfect prints. We need to clean and make sure the print bed is flat, otherwise it will affect the movement of nozzle and the printing quality of the first layer. If the first layer is not deposited evenly on the hot bed, it may result in the entire print to be unsuccessful. This is a simple and useful step.

Method 2: Re-leveling Print Bed

Improper bed leveling can lead to rough print bottoms and is also related to series of other issues: whether the first layer will adhere to the bed, whether the printed material will warp, and whether the correct model will be printed. There are two types of leveling for FDM printers, learn about both manual and automatic leveling: Simple ways for beginners to level 3D printer beds. The printer does not need to be leveled every time, but re-leveling can circumvent some printing problems.


Method 4: Choose High Quality Filament and Stable 3D Printer

High-quality filament can better guarantee the printing effect and printing quality. It is very limited to use only the low price as an advantage of the material, which will directly affect the extrusion and deposition of filament, and may cause some unnecessary printing problems, such as clogged nozzles or uneven extrusion, etc. We recommend Anycubic filament with tight diameter tolerances of 1.75mm ±0.02mm. It is well suited to avoid filament clogging, or spool winding, minimizing the risk of tangles to enhance the 3D printing experience. Anycubic filament serves 3D printing result with high quality, it is widely compatible with Anycubic Kobra Series, as well as most of FDM printers on the market, suitable for applications in various scenarios such as DIY, home decoration, and creative models. It is also a very good material choice for beginners.

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